Colorectal surgery is a field in medicine, that deals with disorders of the rectum, anus, and colon.
At Medcare, we are fully equipped to treat the entire gamut of diseases that affect the lower digestive tract through best-in-class surgery, specialized attention, superlative nursing and supportive post-operative care. These include treatments in proctology, pelvic floor diseases, robotic and laparoscopic colorectal surgery for colorectal cancer. Sometimes major reconstruction of the intestinal tract is required and we have expert surgeons who use minimally invasive (laparoscopic) methods to treat these conditions.
The colon is a hollow tube that runs from the small intestine to the anus. Its main function is to absorb water and store the waste products of digestion until the body is ready to empty them out. The last portion of the colon is called the rectum. At the bottom of the rectum are the sphincter muscles. These muscles prevent the rectum from emptying out accidentally. Any disturbance or irregularity in the colon, rectum and anus may result in rectal bleeding, anal or abdominal pain, itching, constipation, diarrhoea, mucous or pus discharge.
Colorectal surgery is used, to treat a wide range of conditions mentioned below:
Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis - Both are types of chronic inflammatory disease of the colon. Symptoms include loose stools, mucous and blood. Sores in the colon are first treated with medicine and when medication fails, surgery is recommended. Usually, surgery removes the colon and rectum and creates a pouch to collect body wastes. It is important to get screened for colon cancer even when you have no symptoms. Screening for colon cancer can include colonoscopy with biopsies. Although screening does not reduce your chances of developing colon cancer, it may help to find cancer at an early stage and improve the chance of curing cancer.
Colon and rectal cancers - Colorectal cancer is cancer that starts in the rectum or colon. Both of these organs are in the lower portion of the digestive system. The colon is also known as the large intestine. The rectum is at the end of the colon.
Diverticulitis - The infection or inflammation of certain pouches or diverticula which get formed in the intestines. Diverticular bleeding occurs when a small blood vessel within the wall of a pouch, or diverticulum, bursts.
Familial Polyposis - A genetic condition in which numerous projecting masses of swollen and thickened membrane (polyps) develop on the inner lining of the bowel.
Bowel Incontinence is caused due to damage to the muscles around the anus which results in an inability to control bowel movements, common among older adults.
Rectal Prolapse - The last part of the large intestine (the rectum) stretches and protrudes from the anus. Through surgery, the rectum is put back in place.
Haemorrhoids are also known as piles, which are swollen veins located around the anus or in the lower rectum and result in painless rectal bleeding.
Anal fissure is a cut or tear occurring in the anus that extends upwards into the anal canal. It occurs in the specialized tissue that lines the anus and anal canal, called anoderm. It causes severe anal pain on defecation with some bleeding,
Anal Fistula and Anal Abscess – Symptoms are pus and blood discharge with pain. There may be painful lumps in the anal area accompanied by fever.
Colon and rectal diseases encompass a broad range of conditions and ailments, which vary in nature from mildly irritating to life-threatening. Research has shown that timely detection of colorectal diseases can greatly improve survival rates. Some colorectal surgeons also treat pelvic floor disorders such as perineal hernia and rectocele (a bulging of the rectum toward the vagina).
These surgeries repair tears, remove blockages or tighten sphincter muscles.
Colorectal surgery involves resection (cutting out the diseased or damaged portion) and anastomosis (attaching the cut ends of the intestine together). In certain cases, a colorectal surgeon may require to do a strictureplasty, a procedure that widens the intestine instead of making it shorter.
Colorectal surgery is commonly used to remove cancerous polyps in the early stages of colorectal cancer. If cancer has spread into the bowel walls, then the surgeon may remove a portion of the colon or rectum, along with any lymph nodes. Sometimes, an opening in the abdominal wall is created for the removal of waste. This is called a colostomy. In this procedure, an ostomy is created, which is an opening from the inside of the body to the outside, in order to remove body wastes. Most colostomies and ileostomies are permanent. Temporary colostomies are created to divert stool from injured or diseased portions of the large intestine, to permit rest and healing.
The advantages of laparoscopic surgeries are many and include quick recovery time, less postoperative pain, and minimum scarring, however, these are not recommended for patients with large tumours, previous cancer, or grave heart problems.
At Medcare, we use innovative techniques, and minimally invasive, state-of-the-art surgical procedures that are backed by the latest research. Our colorectal surgeons work with gastroenterologists to provide comprehensive and holistic treatment.