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What is kidney & urinary stone?

Kidney and urinary stones are solid build-ups of hard crystals made of minerals, proteins and salts found in urine, that get deposited in the kidneys or urinary tract. Very often, the stones are formed when the urine becomes concentrated and causes the minerals to stick together and crystalise. Passing the kidney stones out can be quite painful, however the stones usually do not cause any permanent damage if recognised and treated early.

Possible Causes: 

Kidney stones are created when your urine has high levels of certain minerals like calcium, oxalate and uric acid. If this concentration of minerals is not diluted by the urine in your body then stones can form.

Kidney stone causes are diet, diarrhoea, obesity, certain medical conditions and a family history of kidney stones.

Kidney stones can affect any part of your urinary tract from your kidneys to your bladder.
 

Risk Factors: 

The risk factors for getting kidney and urinary stones are:

  • Trouble metabolising chemicals like cysteine, oxalate, and uric acid can be a part of your family history.
  • Excess vitamin D could be a risk factor for kidney and urinary stones.
  • Some medical conditions which encourage stone formation are renal tubular acidosis, medullary sponge kidney, IBS, gastric bypass surgery, cystic fibrosis, and hyperthyroidism.
  • Not drinking enough water each day can increase your risk of kidney stones.
  • Excess salt in your diet increases the amount of calcium your kidneys.
  • A large waist size and weight gain increases the risk of kidney stones.
     

Signs & Symptoms: 

Symptoms depend on the severity of your condition:

  • Pain in your groin, lower abdomen and below the ribs.
  • Waxing and waning of pain.
  • Frequent urination that is painful.
  • Smelly and strong coloured urine.
  • Feeling feverish.
  • Urge to urinate but only small amounts are released.


Diagnosis: 

At Medcare, your urologist will first obtain your complete medical history and examine you. Then blood testing and urine culture to determine the amount of minerals in your urine may be recommended.

This is followed by tests like X-rays, dual energy computerised tomography (CT) scans of your kidneys and urinary tract. The stone expelled by you during urination will be analysed.

Other testing options include an ultrasound, and intravenous urography, intravenous pyelogram or CT urogram. The results of these tests will help your specialist decide the correct line of treatment.

 

Treatment Options: 

To discuss the best kidney stones treatment options for you, schedule a consultation with a specialist at the Medcare Urology Department. 

Depending on your condition, pain medication and a lot of water intake may be required to pass a kidney stone. However, surgery may be required if the stones get stuck in the urinary tract.

  • Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a procedure for removal of kidney stones through your urine.
  • Ureteroscopy procedure treats stones in the kidneys and ureters. 
  • A surgery called percutaneous nephrolithotomy is the last resort to get rid of a kidney stone. 
  • Parathyroid gland surgery removes the growth from the gland which stops the formation of kidney stones.
FAQs: الأسئلة الشائعة:
  • What is the right kidney stone diet?

    A: If you suffer from kidney stones, drink at least 64 ounces of water each day. Reduce salt in your food by reducing intake of processed food loaded with preservatives. Reduce your consumption of eggs, spinach, beetroot, chocolate and nuts, as well as aerated drinks. Make sure you are getting plenty of fibre in your diet. Avoid carbonated drinks. Too much salt or sodium, oxalates, calcium and Vitamin C supplements are not good for you.

  • Can medications cause kidney stones?

    A: It is thought that certain medications may be responsible for kidney stones. Those who take diuretics or antacids have a higher calcium concentration in their urine and may get stones.

  • I have had kidney stones removed, is it likely that they will form again?

    A: The recurrence of kidney stones varies from person to person but the chances are there. People who have had kidney stones once have a 75% probability of suffering again in the next 20 years. However, with the right diet, and drinking plenty of water, you can prevent a recurrence.

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