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What is kidney & urinary stone?

Kidney and urinary stones are solid build-ups of hard crystals made of minerals, proteins and salts found in urine, that get deposited in the kidneys or urinary tract. Very often, the stones are formed when the urine becomes concentrated and causes the minerals to stick together and crystalise. Passing the kidney stones out can be quite painful, however the stones usually do not cause any permanent damage if recognised and treated early.

Possible Causes: 

Kidney stones are created when your urine has high levels of certain minerals like calcium, oxalate and uric acid. If this concentration of minerals is not diluted by the urine in your body then stones can form.

Kidney stone causes are diet, diarrhoea, obesity, certain medical conditions and a family history of kidney stones.

Kidney stones can affect any part of your urinary tract from your kidneys to your bladder.
 

Risk Factors: 

The risk factors for getting kidney and urinary stones are:

  • Trouble metabolising chemicals like cysteine, oxalate, and uric acid can be a part of your family history.
  • Excess vitamin D could be a risk factor for kidney and urinary stones.
  • Some medical conditions which encourage stone formation are renal tubular acidosis, medullary sponge kidney, IBS, gastric bypass surgery, cystic fibrosis, and hyperthyroidism.
  • Not drinking enough water each day can increase your risk of kidney stones.
  • Excess salt in your diet increases the amount of calcium your kidneys.
  • A large waist size and weight gain increases the risk of kidney stones.
     

Signs & Symptoms: 

Symptoms depend on the severity of your condition:

  • Pain in your groin, lower abdomen and below the ribs.
  • Waxing and waning of pain.
  • Frequent urination that is painful.
  • Smelly and strong coloured urine.
  • Feeling feverish.
  • Urge to urinate but only small amounts are released.


Diagnosis: 

At Medcare, your urologist will first obtain your complete medical history and examine you. Then blood testing and urine culture to determine the amount of minerals in your urine may be recommended.

This is followed by tests like X-rays, dual energy computerised tomography (CT) scans of your kidneys and urinary tract. The stone expelled by you during urination will be analysed.

Other testing options include an ultrasound, and intravenous urography, intravenous pyelogram or CT urogram. The results of these tests will help your specialist decide the correct line of treatment.

 

Treatment Options: 

To discuss the best kidney stones treatment options for you, schedule a consultation with a specialist at the Medcare Urology Department. 

Depending on your condition, pain medication and a lot of water intake may be required to pass a kidney stone. However, surgery may be required if the stones get stuck in the urinary tract.

  • Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is a procedure for removal of kidney stones through your urine.
  • Ureteroscopy procedure treats stones in the kidneys and ureters. 
  • A surgery called percutaneous nephrolithotomy is the last resort to get rid of a kidney stone. 
  • Parathyroid gland surgery removes the growth from the gland which stops the formation of kidney stones.
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FAQs: Inclusions: الأسئلة الشائعة:
  • What is the right kidney stone diet?

    A: If you suffer from kidney stones, drink at least 64 ounces of water each day. Reduce salt in your food by reducing intake of processed food loaded with preservatives. Reduce your consumption of eggs, spinach, beetroot, chocolate and nuts, as well as aerated drinks. Make sure you are getting plenty of fibre in your diet. Avoid carbonated drinks. Too much salt or sodium, oxalates, calcium and Vitamin C supplements are not good for you.

  • Can medications cause kidney stones?

    A: It is thought that certain medications may be responsible for kidney stones. Those who take diuretics or antacids have a higher calcium concentration in their urine and may get stones.

  • I have had kidney stones removed, is it likely that they will form again?

    A: The recurrence of kidney stones varies from person to person but the chances are there. People who have had kidney stones once have a 75% probability of suffering again in the next 20 years. However, with the right diet, and drinking plenty of water, you can prevent a recurrence.

  • Do kidney stones cause frequent urination?

    A: If you have ever had kidney stones or know someone who does, then you would know the pain associated with it. These stones can also affect urination by affecting the urinary tract. 

    The most common urine-related discomfort people with kidney stones feel is the frequent urge to urinate. They may also face other related issues, such as pain in the lower abdomen, a burning sensation while passing urine and traces of blood in the urine. 

    Want to know if you have kidney stones or how to treat them correctly? Book an appointment with a Medcare specialist today.

  • Can you have kidney stones without blood in urine?

    A: While the pain associated with kidney stones can reach unbearable levels, there are other discomforts associated with this condition. For instance, those who have kidney stones have difficulty passing urine. 

    It is also common to see traces of blood in the urine, but not everyone who suffers from kidney stones passes blood when they urinate. You will typically find blood in the urine when the stones are blocking the urinary tract, and the rough edges tend to scratch the surrounding inner surface. Therefore, while it isn’t a regular occurrence, kidney stones could lead to blood in the urine.

    Concerned about the blood in your urine? Book an appointment with a Medcare specialist today.

  • How can I flush out kidney stones?

    A: Anyone who’s ever passed a kidney stone knows the unbearable pain associated with it. However, if you know the correct way to flush it out, the pain can reduce drastically. If you have kidney stones, the first thing we recommend is drinking a lot of water as it helps to pass the stones and also alleviates urinary problems associated with this condition. 

    If you have bigger stones, then we can also suggest pain relievers and alpha-blockers that relax the muscles, which further aid in passing the stone. In some instances, using sound waves to break the stones into smaller fragments can also be used to help them pass easily. 

    Want to know the best way to flush out your kidney stones? Book an appointment with a Medcare specialist today.

  • What is Laser kidney stone surgery?

    A: An effective way to get rid of kidney stones is to pass them through urine, but when the stones are bigger, they can cause extreme pain and discomfort. For such cases, we often suggest laser kidney stone surgery. 

    This is a minimally invasive surgery wherein the ureteroscope is inserted into the urethra, and laser fibres are used to disintegrate the stone into smaller fragments. Bigger chunks are removed with the help of a basket, while the remaining smaller pieces get flushed out along with the urine. Sometimes, we may also insert a stent inside the urethra, which helps break the kidney stones and makes it easier to pass through urine.

    Want to know if laser kidney stone surgery is right for you? Book an appointment with a Medcare specialist today.

  • How long does it take to recover from kidney stone surgery?

    A: If you need to undergo kidney stone surgery, you have the option to opt for either a laser reduction surgery or an open surgery, depending on your needs. However, consulting your doctor before making a choice is crucial.

    Experiencing some pain and discomfort after the surgery is common during the recovery period, but most patients heal within four to six weeks. We will also prescribe medicines and suggest lifestyle changes, such as avoiding certain types of food and drinking adequate amounts of water to help with the recovery. 

    Want to get kidney stone surgery done? Book an appointment with a Medcare specialist today.

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